- Integration of genomic sequencing into the response to the Ebola virus outbreak in Nord Kivu, Democratic Republic of the Congo Tue, 13 Apr 2021 06:00:00 -0400
On 1 August 2018, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) declared its tenth Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak. To aid the epidemiologic response, the Institut National de Recherche Biomédicale (INRB) implemented an end-to-end genomic surveillance system, including sequencing, bioinformatic analysis and dissemination of genomic epidemiologic results to frontline public health workers. We report 744 new genomes sampled between 27 July 2018 and 27 April 2020 generated by this surveillance...
- Infection Prevention and Control in Liberia 5 Years After Ebola: A Case Study Tue, 13 Apr 2021 06:00:00 -0400
CONCLUSIONS/APPLICATION TO PRACTICE: IPC capacity in Liberia had been sustained since Ebola but was threatened by under-investments in physical resources. Donor countries should prioritize sustained support, both financial and technical, in partnership with Liberian leaders. Occupational health nurses participating in disaster response should advocate for long-term investment by donor countries in personal protective equipment, access to water, and clinician training.
- An Assessment of Anesthesia Capacity in Liberia: Opportunities for Rebuilding Post-Ebola Mon, 12 Apr 2021 06:00:00 -0400
CONCLUSIONS: Overall, we noted several critical gaps in anesthesia and surgical capacity in Liberia, in spite of the massive global response post-Ebola directed toward health system development. Further investment across all domains is necessary to attain minimum international standards and to facilitate the provision of safe surgery and anesthesia in Liberia. The study results will be considered in development of an NSOAP for Liberia.
- Bioreactor production of rVSV-based vectors in Vero cell suspension cultures Sat, 10 Apr 2021 06:00:00 -0400
The Vero cell line is the most used continuous cell line in viral vaccine manufacturing. This adherent cell culture platform requires the use of surfaces to support cell growth, typically roller bottles or microcarriers. We have recently compared the production of rVSV-ZEBOV on Vero cells between microcarrier and fixed-bed bioreactors. However, suspension cultures are considered superior with regard to process scalability. Therefore, we further explore the Vero suspension system for...
- Under consent: participation of people with HIV in an Ebola vaccine trial in Canada Sat, 10 Apr 2021 06:00:00 -0400
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support Fisher's argument of "structural coercion" in clinical trial recruitment of vulnerable individuals experiencing precarious living conditions. Clinical trials should provide more detail of the structural socio-economic conditions and healthcare needs which lie "under consent" of study participants. Going well beyond an overly convenient narrative of altruism, ethical deliberation frameworks need to sufficiently address the structural conditions of clinical...
- Health-Promoting Leadership During an Infectious Disease Outbreak: A Cross-Sectional Study of US Soldiers Deployed to Liberia Fri, 09 Apr 2021 06:00:00 -0400
Infectious disease outbreaks are uniquely stressful for essential employees. One way to support workers is for supervisors to engage in behaviors promoting employees' well-being and attitudes toward preventive medicine practices. We examined whether health-promoting leadership contributes to these outcomes in a population of active-duty soldiers (N = 173) deployed to provide nonmedical support in Liberia during the 2014 Ebola epidemic using data reported in Sipos, Kim, Thomas, and Adler (Mil Med...
- Prodrugs of a 1'-CN-4-Aza-7,9-dideazaadenosine C-Nucleoside Leading to the Discovery of Remdesivir (GS-5734) as a Potent Inhibitor of Respiratory Syncytial Virus with Efficacy in the African Green Monkey Model of RSV Fri, 09 Apr 2021 06:00:00 -0400
A discovery program targeting respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) identified C-nucleoside 4 (RSV A2 EC(50) = 530 nM) as a phenotypic screening lead targeting the RSV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). Prodrug exploration resulted in the discovery of remdesivir (1, GS-5734) that is >30-fold more potent than 4 against RSV in HEp-2 and NHBE cells. Metabolism studies in vitro confirmed the rapid formation of the active triphosphate metabolite, 1-NTP, and in vivo studies in cynomolgus and African...
- The burden of mental disorder in Sierra Leone: a retrospective observational evaluation of programmatic data from the roll out of decentralised nurse-led mental health units Fri, 09 Apr 2021 06:00:00 -0400
CONCLUSIONS: Nurse-led MHU can have a modest effect on the treatment gap in resource constrained environments such as Sierra Leone, particularly in epilepsy and psychosis.
- Ultrasensitive point-of-care immunoassay for secreted glycoprotein detects Ebola infection earlier than PCR Thu, 08 Apr 2021 06:00:00 -0400
Ebola virus (EBOV) hemorrhagic fever outbreaks have been challenging to deter due to the lack of health care infrastructure in disease-endemic countries and a corresponding inability to diagnose and contain the disease at an early stage. EBOV vaccines and therapies have improved disease outcomes, but the advent of an affordable, easily accessed, mass-produced rapid diagnostic test (RDT) that matches the performance of more resource-intensive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays would be...
- Assessing the determinants of Ebola virus disease transmission in Baka Community of the Tropical Rainforest of Cameroon Thu, 08 Apr 2021 06:00:00 -0400
CONCLUSION: Participants generally had poor knowledge of EVD and were at high risk of infection. We recommend rigorous sensitization campaigns in the study area to educate the population on EVD and clarify the misconceptions identified. EVD surveillance is recommended particularly as outbreaks have often been reported in the Congo Basin.