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Ebola Literature - Latest PubMed Articles

Overview of latest articles and publications on ebola in PubMed. PubMed is a service of the US National Library of Medicine that includes over 18 million citations from MEDLINE and other life science journals.


  • Governance and Capacity to Manage Resilience of Health Systems: Towards a New Conceptual Framework.
    Governance and Capacity to Manage Resilience of Health Systems: Towards a New Conceptual Framework. [Journal Article]Int J Health Policy Manag 2017 Apr 04; 6(8):431-435.IJBlanchet K, Nam SL, Ramalingam B, et al. The term resilience has dominated the discourse among health systems researchers since 2014 and the onset of the Ebola outbreak in West Africa. There is wide consensus that the global community has to ...The term resilience has dominated the discourse among health systems researchers since 2014 and the onset of the Ebola outbreak in West Africa. There is wide consensus that the global community has to help build more resilient health systems. But do we really know what resilience means, and do we all have the same vision of resilience? The present paper presents a new conceptual framework on governance of resilience based on systems thinking and complexity theories. In this paper, we see resilience of a health system as its capacity to absorb, adapt and transform when exposed to a shock such as a pandemic, natural disaster or armed conflict and still retain the same control over its structure and functions.

  • Business as Usual: A Lack of Institutional Innovation in Global Health Governance Comment on "Global Health Governance Challenges 2016 - Are We Ready?"
    Business as Usual: A Lack of Institutional Innovation in Global Health Governance Comment on "Global Health Governance Challenges 2016 - Are We Ready?" [Journal Article]Int J Health Policy Manag 2016 Aug 17; 6(3):165-168.IJLee K There were once again high expectations that a major global health event - the Ebola virus outbreak of 2014-2015 - would trigger meaningfully World Health Organization (WHO) reform and strengthen globa...There were once again high expectations that a major global health event - the Ebola virus outbreak of 2014-2015 - would trigger meaningfully World Health Organization (WHO) reform and strengthen global health governance (GHG). Rather than a "turning point," however, the global community has gone back to business as usual. This has occurred against a backdrop of worldwide political turmoil, characterised by a growing rejection of existing political leaders and state-centric institutions. Debates about GHG so far have given insufficient attention to the need for institutional innovation. This entails rethinking the traditional bureaucratic model of postwar intergovernmental organizations which is disconnected from the transboundary, fast-paced nature of today's globalizing world.

  • Investigating Ebola virus pathogenicity using molecular dynamics.
    Investigating Ebola virus pathogenicity using molecular dynamics. [Journal Article]BMC Genomics 2017 Aug 11; 18(Suppl 5):566.BGPappalardo M, Collu F, Macpherson J, et al. Our results provide novel molecular detail on the interaction of Reston virus VP24 and Ebola virus VP24 with human KPNA5. The results indicate a weaker interaction of Reston virus VP24 with KPNA5 than ...Ebolaviruses have been known to cause deadly disease in humans for 40 years and have recently been demonstrated in West Africa to be able to cause large outbreaks. Four Ebolavirus species cause severe disease associated with high mortality in humans. Reston viruses are the only Ebolaviruses that do not cause disease in humans. Conserved amino acid changes in the Reston virus protein VP24 compared to VP24 of other Ebolaviruses have been suggested to alter VP24 binding to host cell karyopherins resulting in impaired inhibition of interferon signalling, which may explain the difference in human pathogenicity. Here we used protein structural analysis and molecular dynamics to further elucidate the interaction between VP24 and KPNA5.As a control experiment, we compared the interaction of wild-type and R137A-mutant (known to affect KPNA5 binding) Ebola virus VP24 with KPNA5. Results confirmed that the R137A mutation weakens direct VP24-KPNA5 binding and enables water molecules to penetrate at the interface. Similarly, Reston virus VP24 displayed a weaker interaction with KPNA5 than Ebola virus VP24, which is likely to reduce the ability of Reston virus VP24 to prevent host cell interferon signalling.Our results provide novel molecular detail on the interaction of Reston virus VP24 and Ebola virus VP24 with human KPNA5. The results indicate a weaker interaction of Reston virus VP24 with KPNA5 than Ebola virus VP24, which is probably associated with a decreased ability to interfere with the host cell interferon response. Hence, our study provides further evidence that VP24 is a key player in determining Ebolavirus pathogenicity.

  • Human immune system mouse models of Ebola virus infection.
    Human immune system mouse models of Ebola virus infection. [Journal Article, Review]Curr Opin Virol 2017 Aug 11.:90-96.COSpengler JR, Prescott J, Feldmann H, et al. Human immune system (HIS) mice, immunodeficient mice engrafted with human cells (with or without donor-matched tissue), offer a unique opportunity to study pathogens that cause disease predominantly or...Human immune system (HIS) mice, immunodeficient mice engrafted with human cells (with or without donor-matched tissue), offer a unique opportunity to study pathogens that cause disease predominantly or exclusively in humans. Several HIS mouse models have recently been used to study Ebola virus (EBOV) infection and disease. The results of these studies are encouraging and support further development and use of these models in Ebola research. HIS mice provide a small animal model to study EBOV isolates, investigate early viral interactions with human immune cells, screen vaccines and therapeutics that modulate the immune system, and investigate sequelae in survivors. Here we review existing models, discuss their use in pathogenesis studies and therapeutic screening, and highlight considerations for study design and analysis. Finally, we point out caveats to current models, and recommend future efforts for modeling EBOV infection in HIS mice.

  • A Risk Analysis Approach to Prioritizing Epidemics: Ebola Virus Disease in West Africa as a Case Study.
    A Risk Analysis Approach to Prioritizing Epidemics: Ebola Virus Disease in West Africa as a Case Study. [Journal Article]Risk Anal 2017 Aug 15.RAAjisegiri WS, Chughtai AA, MacIntyre CR The 2014 Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak affected several countries worldwide, including six West African countries. It was the largest Ebola epidemic in the history and the first to affect multiple...The 2014 Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak affected several countries worldwide, including six West African countries. It was the largest Ebola epidemic in the history and the first to affect multiple countries simultaneously. Significant national and international delay in response to the epidemic resulted in 28,652 cases and 11,325 deaths. The aim of this study was to develop a risk analysis framework to prioritize rapid response for situations of high risk. Based on findings from the literature, sociodemographic features of the affected countries, and documented epidemic data, a risk scoring framework using 18 criteria was developed. The framework includes measures of socioeconomics, health systems, geographical factors, cultural beliefs, and traditional practices. The three worst affected West African countries (Guinea, Sierra Leone, and Liberia) had the highest risk scores. The scores were much lower in developed countries that experienced Ebola compared to West African countries. A more complex risk analysis framework using 18 measures was compared with a simpler one with 10 measures, and both predicted risk equally well. A simple risk scoring system can incorporate measures of hazard and impact that may otherwise be neglected in prioritizing outbreak response. This framework can be used by public health personnel as a tool to prioritize outbreak investigation and flag outbreaks with potentially catastrophic outcomes for urgent response. Such a tool could mitigate costly delays in epidemic response.

  • An RNA polymerase II-driven Ebola virus minigenome system as an advanced tool for antiviral drug screening.
    An RNA polymerase II-driven Ebola virus minigenome system as an advanced tool for antiviral drug screening. [Journal Article]Antiviral Res 2017 Aug 11.ARNelson EV, Pacheco JR, Hume A, et al. Ebola virus (EBOV) causes a severe disease in humans with the potential for significant international public health consequences. Currently, treatments are limited to experimental vaccines and therapeu...Ebola virus (EBOV) causes a severe disease in humans with the potential for significant international public health consequences. Currently, treatments are limited to experimental vaccines and therapeutics. Therefore, research into prophylaxis and antiviral strategies to combat EBOV infections is of utmost importance. The requirement for high containment laboratories to study EBOV infection is a limiting factor for conducting EBOV research. To overcome this issue, minigenome systems have been used as valuable tools to study EBOV replication and transcription mechanisms and to screen for antiviral compounds at biosafety level 2. The most commonly used EBOV minigenome system relies on the ectopic expression of the T7 RNA polymerase (T7), which can be limiting for certain cell types. We have established an improved EBOV minigenome system that utilizes endogenous RNA polymerase II (pol II) as a driver for the synthesis of minigenome RNA. We show here that this system is as efficient as the T7-based minigenome system, but works in a wider range of cell types, including biologically relevant cell types such as bat cells. Importantly, we were also able to adapt this system to a reliable and cost-effective 96-well format antiviral screening assay with a Z-factor of 0.74, indicative of a robust assay. Using this format, we identified JG40, an inhibitor of Hsp70, as an inhibitor of EBOV replication, highlighting the potential for this system as a tool for antiviral drug screening. In summary, this updated EBOV minigenome system provides a convenient and effective means of advancing the field of EBOV research.

  • Synthesis, conformational study and antiviral activity of l-like neplanocin derivatives.
    Synthesis, conformational study and antiviral activity of l-like neplanocin derivatives. [Journal Article]Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2017 Aug 07.BMChen Q, Davidson A The l-like enantiomer of 9-(trans-2', trans-3'-dihydroxycyclopent-4'-enyl)-3-deazaadenine (DHCDA) (1), its 3-deaza-3-bromo derivative (3), and the conformational restricted methanocarba (MC) nucleoside...The l-like enantiomer of 9-(trans-2', trans-3'-dihydroxycyclopent-4'-enyl)-3-deazaadenine (DHCDA) (1), its 3-deaza-3-bromo derivative (3), and the conformational restricted methanocarba (MC) nucleoside analogues (2 and 4) were synthesized. X-ray crystal structures showed the L isomer MC analogue 4 adopts a similar North-like locked conformation as conventional D-MC nucleosides, while the DHCDA analogue 3 preferred south-like conformer. Compounds 1 and 4 showed potent antiviral activity against norovirus, while compound 2 and 3 were less potent or inactive. The conformational behavior of "sugar" puckering (north/south) and nucleobase orientation (syn /anti) may contribute to the antiviral activity differences. For compound 3, antiviral activity was also found against Ebola virus.

  • Reflections on Leadership and Governance from the Incident Manager of Liberia's Ebola Response.
    Reflections on Leadership and Governance from the Incident Manager of Liberia's Ebola Response. [Journal Article]Health Secur 2017 Aug 14.HSNyenswah T The 2014-2016 epidemic of Ebola virus disease occurred in a region with a recent history of civil war, unstable health systems, and widespread poverty. Despite these contextual challenges, the national...Publisher Full TextThe 2014-2016 epidemic of Ebola virus disease occurred in a region with a recent history of civil war, unstable health systems, and widespread poverty. Despite these contextual challenges, the national Ebola response in Liberia controlled transmission under strong leadership that was able to rapidly coordinate activities, to manage local and international players, and to adapt upon recognizing missteps. Such leadership has persisted to improve public health capacity in post-Ebola Liberia. This article highlights the progress made toward developing a resilient health security system with capacity to prevent, detect, and respond to disease threats before they reach epidemic level. In particular, Liberia's development of a Global Health Security Agenda roadmap, a Joint External Evaluation (JEE) report for International Health Regulation (2005) core capacities, and recent establishment of a National Public Health Institute are described. To better protect the country's population and the greater global community from health threats, emerging institutions and policies in Liberia will depend on leadership and governance that draws from the successes and lessons learned during the Ebola outbreak. The author provides insight based on his role as incident manager of Liberia's Ebola response.

  • What We Are Watching-Top Global Infectious Disease Threats, 2013-2016: An Update from CDC's Global Disease Detection Operations Center.
    What We Are Watching-Top Global Infectious Disease Threats, 2013-2016: An Update from CDC's Global Disease Detection Operations Center. [Journal Article]Health Secur 2017 Aug 14.HSChristian KA, Iuliano AD, Uyeki TM, et al. To better track public health events in areas where the public health system is unable or unwilling to report the event to appropriate public health authorities, agencies can conduct event-based survei...Publisher Full TextTo better track public health events in areas where the public health system is unable or unwilling to report the event to appropriate public health authorities, agencies can conduct event-based surveillance, which is defined as the organized collection, monitoring, assessment, and interpretation of unstructured information regarding public health events that may represent an acute risk to public health. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC's) Global Disease Detection Operations Center (GDDOC) was created in 2007 to serve as CDC's platform dedicated to conducting worldwide event-based surveillance, which is now highlighted as part of the "detect" element of the Global Health Security Agenda (GHSA). The GHSA works toward making the world more safe and secure from disease threats through building capacity to better "Prevent, Detect, and Respond" to those threats. The GDDOC monitors approximately 30 to 40 public health events each day. In this article, we describe the top threats to public health monitored during 2012 to 2016: avian influenza, cholera, Ebola virus disease, and the vector-borne diseases yellow fever, chikungunya virus, and Zika virus, with updates to the previously described threats from Middle East respiratory syndrome-coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and poliomyelitis.

  • Advancing Preparedness for Highly Hazardous Contagious Diseases: Admitting 10 Simulated Patients with MERS-CoV.
    Advancing Preparedness for Highly Hazardous Contagious Diseases: Admitting 10 Simulated Patients with MERS-CoV. [Journal Article]Health Secur 2017 Aug 14.HSVasa A, Smith PW, Schwedhelm M, et al. The Ebola outbreak of 2014-2016 highlighted the need for the development of a more robust healthcare infrastructure in the United States to provide isolation care for patients infected with a highly ha...Publisher Full TextThe Ebola outbreak of 2014-2016 highlighted the need for the development of a more robust healthcare infrastructure in the United States to provide isolation care for patients infected with a highly hazardous contagious disease. Routine exercises and skills practice are required to effectively and safely prepare care teams to confidently treat this special population of patients. The Nebraska Biocontainment Unit (NBU) at Nebraska Medicine in Omaha has been conducting exercises since 2005 when the unit was opened. Previous activities and exercises conducted by the Nebraska Biocontainment Unit have focused on transporting and caring for up to 3 patients with Ebola virus disease or other special pathogens. Changes in regional and national mandates, as well as the increased potential for receiving multiple patients at once, at a single location, have resulted in a greater demand to exercise protocols for the treatment of multiple patients. This article discusses in detail the planning, execution, and outcomes of a full-scale exercise involving 10 simulated patients with a highly infectious pathogen transmitted by the airborne route.

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