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Ebola Literature - Latest PubMed Articles

Overview of latest articles and publications on ebola in PubMed. PubMed is a service of the US National Library of Medicine that includes over 18 million citations from MEDLINE and other life science journals.


  • The lifecycle of the Ebola virus in host cells.
    The lifecycle of the Ebola virus in host cells. [Journal Article, Review]Oncotarget 2017 Jun 15.OYu DS, Weng TH, Wu XX, et al. Ebola haemorrhagic fever causes deadly disease in humans and non-human primates resulting from infection with the Ebola virus (EBOV) genus of the family Filoviridae. However, the mechanisms of EBOV lif...Publisher Full TextEbola haemorrhagic fever causes deadly disease in humans and non-human primates resulting from infection with the Ebola virus (EBOV) genus of the family Filoviridae. However, the mechanisms of EBOV lifecycle in host cells, including viral entry, membrane fusion, RNP formation, GP-tetherin interaction, and VP40-inner leaflet association remain poorly understood. This review describes the biological functions of EBOV proteins and their roles in the lifecycle, summarizes the factors related to EBOV proteins or RNA expression throughout the different phases, and reviews advances with regards to the molecular events and mechanisms of the EBOV lifecycle. Furthermore, the review outlines the aspects remain unclear that urgently need to be solved in future research.

  • Detecting Ebola with limited laboratory access in the Democratic Republic of Congo: evaluation of a clinical passive surveillance reporting system.
    Detecting Ebola with limited laboratory access in the Democratic Republic of Congo: evaluation of a clinical passive surveillance reporting system. [Journal Article]Trop Med Int Health 2017 Jun 27.TMAshbaugh HR, Kuang B, Gadoth A, et al. Although collected prior to official active surveillance cases, case reporting through the IDSR during the 2007, 2008, and 2012 outbreaks coincided with official EVD epidemic curves. Additionally, all ...Publisher Full TextEbola Virus Disease (EVD) can be clinically severe and highly fatal, making surveillance efforts for early disease detection of paramount importance. In areas with limited access to laboratory testing, the Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) strategy in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) may be a vital tool in improving outbreak response.Using DRC IDSR data from the nation's four EVD outbreak periods from 2007-2014, we assessed trends of Viral Hemorrhagic Fever (VHF) and EVD differential diagnoses reportable through IDSR. With official case counts from active surveillance of EVD outbreaks, we assessed accuracy of reporting in IDSR.Although the active and passive surveillance represent two distinct sets of data, the two were correlated, suggesting that passive surveillance based only on clinical evaluation may be a useful predictor of true cases prior to laboratory confirmation. There were 438 suspect VHF cases reported through the IDSR system and 416 EVD cases officially recorded across the outbreaks examined.Although collected prior to official active surveillance cases, case reporting through the IDSR during the 2007, 2008, and 2012 outbreaks coincided with official EVD epidemic curves. Additionally, all outbreak areas experienced increases in suspected cases for both malaria and typhoid fever during EVD outbreaks, underscoring the importance of training health care workers in recognizing EVD differential diagnoses and the potential for co-morbidities. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  • Guide to the Correct Use of Filoviral Nomenclature.
    Guide to the Correct Use of Filoviral Nomenclature. [Journal Article]Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 2017 Jun 27.CTKuhn JH The International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) currently recognizes three genera and seven species as part of the mononegaviral family Filoviridae. Eight distinct filoviruses (Bundibugyo vir...Publisher Full TextThe International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) currently recognizes three genera and seven species as part of the mononegaviral family Filoviridae. Eight distinct filoviruses (Bundibugyo virus, Ebola virus, Lloviu virus, Marburg virus, Ravn virus, Reston virus, Sudan virus, and Taï Forest virus) have been assigned to these seven species. This chapter briefly summarizes the status quo of filovirus classification and focuses on the importance of differentiating between filoviral species and filoviruses and the correct use of taxonomic and vernacular filovirus names and abbreviations in written and oral discourse.

  • Ebola Virus Disease in Humans: Pathophysiology and Immunity.
    Ebola Virus Disease in Humans: Pathophysiology and Immunity. [Journal Article]Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 2017 Jun 27.CTMuñoz-Fontela C, McElroy AK Viruses of the Ebolavirus genus cause sporadic epidemics of severe and systemic febrile disease that are fueled by human-to-human transmission. Despite the notoriety of ebolaviruses, particularly Ebola...Publisher Full TextViruses of the Ebolavirus genus cause sporadic epidemics of severe and systemic febrile disease that are fueled by human-to-human transmission. Despite the notoriety of ebolaviruses, particularly Ebola virus (EBOV), as prominent viral hemorrhagic fever agents, and the international concern regarding Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreaks, very little is known about the pathophysiology of EVD in humans and, in particular, about the human immune correlates of survival and immune memory. This lack of basic knowledge about physiological characteristics of EVD is probably attributable to the dearth of clinical and laboratory data gathered from past outbreaks. The unprecedented magnitude of the EVD epidemic that occurred in West Africa from 2013 to 2016 has allowed, for the first time, evaluation of clinical, epidemiological, and immunological parameters in a significant number of patients using state-of-the-art laboratory equipment. This review will summarize the data from the literature regarding human pathophysiologic and immunologic responses to filoviral infection.

  • Ethics review of studies during public health emergencies - the experience of the WHO ethics review committee during the Ebola virus disease epidemic.
    Ethics review of studies during public health emergencies - the experience of the WHO ethics review committee during the Ebola virus disease epidemic. [Journal Article]BMC Med Ethics 2017 Jun 26; 18(1):43.BMAlirol E, Kuesel AC, Guraiib MM, et al. To accelerate study approval in future public health emergencies, we recommend: (1) internally consistent and complete submissions with information documents in language participants are likely to unde...Between 2013 and 2016, West Africa experienced the largest ever outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease. In the absence of registered treatments or vaccines to control this lethal disease, the World Health Organization coordinated and supported research to expedite identification of interventions that could control the outbreak and improve future control efforts. Consequently, the World Health Organization Research Ethics Review Committee (WHO-ERC) was heavily involved in reviews and ethics discussions. It reviewed 24 new and 22 amended protocols for research studies including interventional (drug, vaccine) and observational studies.WHO-ERC provided the reviews within on average 6 working days. The WHO-ERC often could not provide immediate approval of protocols for reasons which were not Ebola Virus Disease specific but related to protocol inconsistencies, missing information and complex informed consents. WHO-ERC considerations on Ebola Virus Disease specific issues (benefit-risk assessment, study design, exclusion of pregnant women and children from interventional studies, data and sample sharing, collaborative partnerships including international and local researchers and communities, community engagement and participant information) are presented.To accelerate study approval in future public health emergencies, we recommend: (1) internally consistent and complete submissions with information documents in language participants are likely to understand, (2) close collaboration between local and international researchers from research inception, (3) generation of template agreements for data and sample sharing and use during the ongoing global consultations on bio-banks, (4) formation of Joint Scientific Advisory and Data Safety Review Committees for all studies linked to a particular intervention or group of interventions, (5) formation of a Joint Ethics Review Committee with representatives of the Ethics Committees of all institutions and countries involved to strengthen reviews through the different perspectives provided without the 'opportunity costs' for time to final approval of multiple, independent reviews, (6) direct information exchange between the chairs of advisory, safety review and ethics committees, (7) more Ethics Committee support for investigators than is standard and (8) a global consultation on criteria for inclusion of pregnant women and children in interventional studies for conditions which put them at particularly high risk of mortality or other irreversible adverse outcomes under standard-of-care.

  • The rise of Zika infection and microcephaly: what can we learn from a public health emergency?
    The rise of Zika infection and microcephaly: what can we learn from a public health emergency? [Journal Article, Review]Public Health 2017 Jun 23.:87-92.PHMcCloskey B, Endericks T The response to Zika highlights important issues and lessons for future outbreaks that might pose an international risk. Particular challenges arose in trying to maintain an evidence-based approach to ...Publisher Full TextTo consider why Zika was declared a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC), why it stopped being one and what we can learn from this for the future.This paper reviews the sequence of events and evidence base for the decision to declare Zika a PHEIC, the global response to this, the challenges in maintaining an evidence-based approach to outbreak response and identifies learning outcomes.Evidence review, all published articles in reputable UK and international journals were identified.The association between Zika virus infection and congenital malformations including microcephaly became a PHEIC on 1st February 2016 and was declared to be no longer an emergency in November 2016. This shaped the global response led by WHO in the first global emergency since Ebola in West Africa.The response to Zika highlights important issues and lessons for future outbreaks that might pose an international risk. Particular challenges arose in trying to maintain an evidence-based approach to public risk communication when the evidence is unclear or still evolving. The Zika incident also demonstrates the importance of public health practitioners and agencies understanding the political context in which outbreaks must be managed and understanding the competing factors that shape the political response.

  • Enhanced light microscopy visualization of virus particles from Zika virus to filamentous ebolaviruses.
    Enhanced light microscopy visualization of virus particles from Zika virus to filamentous ebolaviruses. [Journal Article]PLoS One 2017; 12(6):e0179728.PlosDaaboul GG, Freedman DS, Scherr SM, et al. Light microscopy is a powerful tool in the detection and analysis of parasites, fungi, and prokaryotes, but has been challenging to use for the detection of individual virus particles. Unlabeled virus ...Publisher Full TextLight microscopy is a powerful tool in the detection and analysis of parasites, fungi, and prokaryotes, but has been challenging to use for the detection of individual virus particles. Unlabeled virus particles are too small to be visualized using standard visible light microscopy. Characterization of virus particles is typically performed using higher resolution approaches such as electron microscopy or atomic force microscopy. These approaches require purification of virions away from their normal millieu, requiring significant levels of expertise, and can only enumerate small numbers of particles per field of view. Here, we utilize a visible light imaging approach called Single Particle Interferometric Reflectance Imaging Sensor (SP-IRIS) that allows automated counting and sizing of thousands of individual virions. Virions are captured directly from complex solutions onto a silicon chip and then detected using a reflectance interference imaging modality. We show that the use of different imaging wavelengths allows the visualization of a multitude of virus particles. Using Violet/UV illumination, the SP-IRIS technique is able to detect individual flavivirus particles (~40 nm), while green light illumination is capable of identifying and discriminating between vesicular stomatitis virus and vaccinia virus (~360 nm). Strikingly, the technology allows the clear identification of filamentous infectious ebolavirus particles and virus-like particles. The ability to differentiate and quantify unlabeled virus particles extends the usefulness of traditional light microscopy and can be embodied in a straightforward benchtop approach allowing widespread applications ranging from rapid detection in biological fluids to analysis of virus-like particles for vaccine development and production.

  • Communicating infectious disease prevalence through graphics: Results from an international survey.
    Communicating infectious disease prevalence through graphics: Results from an international survey. [Journal Article]Vaccine 2017 Jun 02.VFagerlin A, Valley TS, Scherer AM, et al. Results are based on a hypothetical scenario.Heat maps are a viable option to promote interest in and concern about infectious diseases.Publisher Full TextGraphics are increasingly used to represent the spread of infectious diseases (e.g., influenza, Zika, Ebola); however, the impact of using graphics to adequately inform the general population is unknown.To examine whether three ways of visually presenting data (heat map, dot map, or picto-trendline)-all depicting the same information regarding the spread of a hypothetical outbreak of influenza-influence intent to vaccinate, risk perception, and knowledge.Survey with participants randomized to receive a simulated news article accompanied by one of the three graphics that communicated prevalence of influenza and number of influenza-related deaths.International online survey.16,510 adults living in 11 countries selected using stratified random sampling based on age and gender.After reading the article and viewing the presented graphic, participants completed a survey that measured interest in vaccination, perceived risk of contracting disease, knowledge gained, interest in additional information about the disease, and perception of the graphic.Heat maps and picto-trendlines were evaluated more positively than dot maps. Heat maps were more effective than picto-trendlines and no different from dot maps at increasing interest in vaccination, perceived risk of contracting disease, and interest in additional information about the disease. Heat maps and picto-trendlines were more successful at conveying knowledge than dot maps. Overall, heat maps were the only graphic to be superior in every outcome.Results are based on a hypothetical scenario.Heat maps are a viable option to promote interest in and concern about infectious diseases.

  • Clinical development of a recombinant Ebola vaccine in the midst of an unprecedented epidemic.
    Clinical development of a recombinant Ebola vaccine in the midst of an unprecedented epidemic. [Journal Article]Vaccine 2017 Jun 21.VColler BG, Blue J, Das R, et al. The 2014-2016 Ebola outbreak caused over 28,000 cases and 11,000 deaths. Merck & Co. Inc., Kenilworth, NJ USA and NewLink Genetics are working with private and public partners to develop and license an...Publisher Full TextThe 2014-2016 Ebola outbreak caused over 28,000 cases and 11,000 deaths. Merck & Co. Inc., Kenilworth, NJ USA and NewLink Genetics are working with private and public partners to develop and license an Ebola vaccine that was evaluated extensively during the outbreak. The vaccine referred to as V920 is a recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV) in which the VSV-G envelope glycoprotein (GP) is completely replaced by the Zaire ebolavirus GP (rVSVΔG-ZEBOV-GP). Eight Phase I and four Phase II/III clinical trials enrolling approximately 17,000 subjects were conducted in parallel to the outbreak to assess the safety, immunogenicity, and/or efficacy of V920. Immunogenicity data demonstrate that anti-GP antibodies are generally detectable by ELISA by 14days postvaccination with up to 100% seroconversion observed by 28days post dose. In addition, the results of a ring vaccination trial conducted by the WHO and their partners in Guinea suggest robust vaccine efficacy within 10days of receipt of a single dose of vaccine. The vaccine is generally well-tolerated when administered to healthy, non-pregnant adults. The development of this vaccine candidate in the context of this unprecedented epidemic has involved the close cooperation of large number of international partners and highlights what we as a public health community can accomplish when working together towards a common goal. Study identification: V920-001 to V920-012. CLINICALTRIALS.GOV identifiers: NCT02269423; NCT02280408; NCT02374385; NCT02314923; NCT02287480; NCT02283099; NCT02296983; NCT02344407; NCT02378753; NCT02503202.

  • Clinical Management of Ebola Virus Disease Patients in Low-Resource Settings.
    Clinical Management of Ebola Virus Disease Patients in Low-Resource Settings. [Journal Article]Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 2017 Jun 24.CTSprecher A, Van Herp M, Rollin PE The low-resource environment deprives healthcare providers caring for patients with Ebola virus disease (EVD) of many of the means employed for the critically ill that are available in better resourced...Publisher Full TextThe low-resource environment deprives healthcare providers caring for patients with Ebola virus disease (EVD) of many of the means employed for the critically ill that are available in better resourced settings, such as advanced therapeutic interventions and abundant staff. In addition to these limitations may be added those imposed by the remote tropical locations, where EVD outbreaks occur. In this setting, a safe environment is created where healthcare workers may care for their patients over the evolving course of their acute illness into their convalescent period. Clinical management of EVD combines supportive and symptomatic care while also addressing the patient's emotional and mental health needs. A variety of specific therapies directly targeting the virus has become available, but none of these has, as of yet, conclusively demonstrated an impact. Healthcare workers caring for EVD patients must be constantly aware that they are part of a larger epidemic control operation, and their actions have consequences that go beyond their patients to their families and the community affected by the outbreak.